Review the functional groups covered in Unit 1- alcohols, halides, carboxylic acids and esters.
A functional group is an atom or a group of atoms that give a characteristic set of chemical properties to a molecule containing that group.
•Long hydrocarbon chains are non-polar. They are not attracted to polar substances like water. Dispersion forces exist between carbon chains (inter-molecular bonding). The longer the carbon chain, the stronger the dispersion forces.
•Adding a functional groups gives the hydrocarbon a polar site. Hydrogen bonding can then take place. Generally, if a compound is small and contains a functional group, it is soluble in water.
•Contain the amino functional group.
•bonds around the nitrogen are polar due to high electronegativity of Nitrogen
•amino acids have NH2 and COOH groups
Carbonyl functional group
•Aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, amides and esters all have a carbonyl group.
This is a carbon with a double bond connected to oxygen. The bonding around this carbon is triangular planar.
•The carbonyl group is always bonded to a hydrogen (R-CHO)
•CHO is always at the end of the molecule.
•Suffix – al
•Formaldehyde is also known as methanal.
•Carbonyl group attached to two other carbon atoms.
•General formula R-O-R’
•Functional group written as –CO
•Primary amides contain a –NH2 group attached to a –CO group.
•Primary means that there is only H attached to the nitrogen (no carbon).
•Functional group –CONH2
Functional group is always at the end of the molecule.
Carbonyl functional group.